SINCLAIR ZX SPECTRUM
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BASIC Programming
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By Steven Vickers
Edited by Robin Bradbeer
Converted to ASCII text by
Chris Owen
(Internet email: co@nvg.unit.no)
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Original edition published in 1982
by Sinclair Research Limited
This version published in 1995
by Chris Owen on behalf of Amstrad plc
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Amstrad plc 1995 - all rights reserved
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This manual is freely distributable but must
not be distributed without this notice.
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HTML version by Pete Robinson.


CONTENTS

Chapter1 Introduction
A guide to the ZX Spectrum keyboard and a description of the display.
Chapter 2 Basic programming concepts
Programs, line numbers, editing programs using cursor down, cursor up and EDIT, RUN, LIST, GO TO, CONTINUE, INPUT, NEW, REM, PRINT, STOP in INPUT data, BREAK
Chapter 3 Decisions
IF, STOP, =, <, >, <=, >=, <>
Chapter 4 Looping
FOR, NEXT, TO, STEP. Introducing FOR-NEXT loops
Chapter 5 Subroutines
GO SUB, RETURN
Chapter 6 READ, DATA, RESTORE
Chapter 7 Expressions
Mathematical expressions using +, -, *, /, scientific notation and variable names.
Chapter 8 Strings
Handling strings and slicing.
Chapter 9 Functions
User-definable functions and others readily available on the ZX Spectrum using DEF, LEN, STR$, VAL, SGN, ABS, INT, SQR, FN
Chapter 10 Mathematical functions
Including simple trigonometry: PI, EXP, LN, SIN, COS, TAN, ASN, ACS, ATN
Chapter 11 Random numbers
Using RANDOMIZE and RND.
Chapter 12 Arrays
Strings and numeric arrays - DIM.
Chapter 13 Conditions
Logical expressions: AND, OR, NOT.
Chapter 14 The character set
A look at the ZX character set including graphics and how to construct your own graphic characters: CODE, CHR$, POKE, PEEK, USR, BIN
Chapter 15 More about PRINT and INPUT
Some more complicated uses of these commands using separators: ,;' , TAB, AT, LINE and CLS.
Chapter 16 Colours
INK, PAPER, FLASH, BRIGHT, INVERSE, OVER, BORDER
Chapter 17 Graphics
PLOT, DRAW, CIRCLE, POINT
Chapter 18 Motion
Animated graphics using PAUSE, INKEY$ and PEEK.
Chapter 19 BEEP
The sound capabilities of the ZX Spectrum using BEEP.
Chapter 20 Tape Storage
How to store your programs on cassette tape: SAVE, LOAD, VERIFY, MERGE.
Chapter 21 The ZX Printer
LLIST, LPRINT, COPY
Chapter 22 Other equipment
Connecting the ZX Spectrum to other machines and devices.
Chapter 23 IN and OUT
Input/Output ports and their uses: IN, OUT
Chapter 24 The memory
A look at the internal workings of the ZX Spectrum: CLEAR
Chapter 25 The system variables
Chapter 26 Using machine code
Introducing USR with a numeric argument
APPENDIX A The character set
APPENDIX B Reports
APPENDIX C A description of the ZX Spectrum for reference
APPENDIX D Example programs
APPENDIX E Binary and hexadecimal

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